Репозиторий Университета

Sex estimation based on the anthropometric measurements of thyroid cartilage using discriminant analysis

  • Cameriere R.
  • Zolotenkova G.V.
  • Kuznetsov I.A.
  • Scendoni R.
  • Pigolkin Y.I.
Дата публикации:01.12.2021
Журнал: Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences
БД: Scopus
Ссылка: Scopus


© 2021, The Author(s). Background: The morphometric analysis of the individual bones of the human skeleton can be used to estimate the sex of unidentified corpses. Our aims were as follows: to test whether thyroid cartilage can be used for forensic purposes as a predictor of biological sex; to establish the level of sexual dimorphism of the thyroid cartilage in a sample of adult subjects from a population of European Russia; and to test the accuracy of the morphometric parameters obtained from the thyroid cartilage. Results: The thyroid cartilage from 100 adults of known age (50 males and 50 females) was obtained during forensic examination; morphometric tests were conducted using Vernier Digital ROKTOOLS ABS DIN 862 0-200/6 inch with measurement accuracy ± 0.01 mm. The measured parameters were N = 31 for each subject. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was tested. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the measurements. To check the data set for normal distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Finally, to estimate the sex of the observed individuals, a stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted, using the Wilks’ lambda selection method. The most significant parameters were the outer distance between bases of inferior horn; the inner distance between distal ends of inferior horns; distance between distal ends of left superior and inferior horns; left superior horn length (distance between left superior horn distal end and base); distance between superior and inferior notches; thyroid angle; left lamina height (vertical line along left lamina middle); horizontal distance between anterior intermedium line and the right lamina posterior edge; distance between inferior thyroid notch and line connecting left and right thyroid laminae; and left superior horn thickness at mid-line. The stepwise discriminant analysis resulted in an equation with ten parameters. Conclusions: The results of the current study indicated that in the European Russian population, the equation obtained in the stepwise discriminant analysis makes it possible to predict sex with a probability of 100% on the validation set. On the test set, the resultant accuracy was 100% for females and 100% for males. Our findings confirm the scientific evidence that the thyroid cartilage has a pronounced sexual dimorphism.

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