Репозиторий Университета

Identification of synergistic and antagonistic actions of environmental pollutants: Bisphenols A, S and F in the presence of DEP, DBP, BADGE and BADGE·2HCl in three component mixtures

  • Jatkowska N.
  • Kudłak B.
  • Lewandowska P.
  • Liu W.
  • Williams M.J.
  • Schiöth H.B.
Дата публикации:01.05.2021
Журнал: Science of the Total Environment
БД: Scopus
Ссылка: Scopus


© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Ecosystems are facing increased pressure due to the emission of many classes of emerging contaminants. However, very little is known about the interactions of these pollutants, such as bisphenols (BPs), plasticizers or pharmaceuticals. By employing bioluminescent bacteria (Microtox assay), we were able to define interactions between selected emerging pollutants (namely BPA, BPS, BPF, BADGE, BADGE·2HCl, DEP, DBP) in ternary mixtures, at environmentally relevant concentration levels (down to as low as 1.89, 1.42, 3.08, and 0.326 μM for, respectively, BPA, BPF, BPS and BADGE·2HCl). We provide the first systematic analysis of bisphenols and phthalates in three component mixtures. Using this system, we performed toxicity modelling with concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) approaches, followed by data interpretation using Model Deviation Ratio (MDR) evaluation. Interestingly, we mathematically and experimentally confirmed a novel synergy between BPA, BADGE and BADGE·2HCl. The synergy of BPA, BADGE and BADGE·2HCl is distinct, with both models suggesting these analytes have a similar mode of action (MOA). Moreover, we unexpectedly found a strong antagonistic impact with DEP, in mixtures containing BPA and BADGE analogues, which is confirmed with both mathematical models. Our study also shows that the impact of BPS and BPF in many mixtures is highly concentration dependent, justifying the necessity to perform mixture studies using wide concentration ranges. Overall, this study demonstrates that bioluminescent bacteria are a relevant model for detecting the synergistic and antagonist actions of environmental pollutants in mixtures, and highlights the importance of analyzing combinations of pollutants in higher order mixtures.

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