ROS and RNS signalling: adaptive redox switches through oxidative/nitrosative protein modifications

  • Луценко Сергей Викторович
  • Молдогазиева Нурбубу Тентиевна
  • Фельдман Наталия Борисовна
Журнал: Free Radical Research
БД: Scopus, WOS


Over the last decade, a dual character of cell response to oxidative stress, eustress versus distress, has become increasingly recognized. A growing body of evidence indicates that under physiological conditions, low concentrations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) maintained by the activity of endogenous antioxidant system (AOS) allow reversible oxidative/nitrosative modifications of key redox-sensitive residues in regulatory proteins. The reversibility of redox modifications such as Cys S-sulphenylation/S-glutathionylation/S-nitrosylation/S-persulphidation and disulphide bond formation, or Tyr nitration, which occur through electrophilic attack of RONS to nucleophilic groups in amino acid residues provides redox switches in the activities of signalling proteins. Key requirement for the involvement of the redox modifications in RONS signalling including ROS-MAPK, ROS-PI3K/Akt, and RNS-TNF-α/NF-kB signalling is their specificity provided by a residue microenvironment and reaction kinetics. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidases, peroxiredoxins, thioredoxin, glutathione reductases, and glutaredoxins modulate RONS level and cell signalling, while some of the modulators (glutathione, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins) are themselves targets for redox modifications. Additionally, gene expression, activities of transcription factors, and epigenetic pathways are also under redox regulation. The present review focuses on RONS sources (NADPH-oxidases, mitochondrial electron-transportation chain (ETC), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), etc.), and their cross-talks, which influence reversible redox modifications of proteins as physiological phenomenon attained by living cells during the evolution to control cell signalling in the oxygen-enriched environment. We discussed recent advances in investigation of mechanisms of protein redox modifications and adaptive redox switches such as MAPK/PI3K/PTEN, Nrf2/Keap1, and NF-κB/IκB, powerful regulators of numerous physiological processes, also implicated in various diseases.

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