8 декабря 2015

term_cover_212x300.jpgDenis Butnaru, MD, PhD, Deputy Director, Research Institute for Urology (Sechenov First MSMU, Moscow, Russia) has published an article in "Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine" (IF 5.199) in collaboration with Anthony Atala, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, Director, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (North Caroline, USA) and James J. Yoo, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, Associate Director and Chief Scientific Officer Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (North Caroline, USA). The cooperation between two institutes was initiated in 2013. Urethral strictures and anomalies remain among the difficult problems in urology, with urethroplasty procedures being the most effective treatment options. The two major types of urethroplasty are anastomotic urethroplasty and widening the urethral lumen using flaps or grafts (i.e. substitution urethroplasty). However, no ideal material for the latter has been found so far. Designing and selecting such a material is a necessary and challenging endeavour, driving the need for further bioengineered urethral tissue research. Tissue engineering (TE) is one of the leading approaches of regenerative medicine. The term ‘tissue engineering’ was first used at a workshop held by the US National Science Foundation in 1987 (Heineken and Skalak, 1991), where it was defined as the application of principles and methods of engineering and life sciences toward fundamental understanding of structure–function relationships in normal and pathological tissues (Fox and Skalak, 1988). ‘Tissue engineering follows the principles of cell transplantation, materials science, and engineering toward the development of biological substitutes that would restore and maintain normal function’ (Atala, 2004). As mentioned above, urethral reconstruction involves the use of different ‘patches’ (which may be called matrices, scaffolds or substrates) that have to be transplanted into the urethral wall, thus providing a patent lumen. Conventional substitution urethroplasty utilizes different tissues of the patient. Tissue-engineered urethroplasty procedures may be performed with both naturally derived and synthetic materials (Atala, 2012a, 2012b). One of the tasks when developing tissue-engineered ‘patches’ is forming a support matrix that would serve as a substrate for cells (cell-adhesion substrate) that would control the configuration of the tissue-engineered structure and the direction of tissue regeneration. Each of the naturally derived and synthetic biocompatible materials utilized for tissue engineering has its advantages and disadvantages. This article reviews currently available studies on the potentialities of tissue engineering in urethral reconstruction, in particular those describing the use of both acellular and recellularized tissue-engineered constructs in animal and human models. Possible future developments in this field are also discussed.

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