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WORD’S FIRST PHYSICIAN-ASTRONAUT.

WORD’S FIRST PHYSICIAN-ASTRONAUT.

Boris B. Yegorov (1937–1994) – physician, astronaut, Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel of Medical Service, Doctor of medicine, professor.

Doctorate of medicine from Humboldt University in Berlin. Member (academician) of International Astronautics Academy. In 1970–1994 – Deputy Chairman Bioastronautics Committee of International Astronautics Federation.

    

Word’s first physician-astronaut. A participant of World’s first multimanned spaceflight.

 

In our University. Graduated in 1961.

 

Brief biography. Boris Yegorov was born on the 26th of November 1937 in Moscow. While still a student he began working as a laboratory technician at the cosmonaut training centre, then studied physiology problems at the Institute for Space and Aviation Medicine. Working there appeared a dream of becoming a cosmonaut. He managed to be one of the doctors who were supposed to provide the first aid for the returned cosmonaut. During U.A. Gagarin’s flight he was on duty at one of the reserved landing areas in Siberia.

 

In the spring of 1964 Yegorov began preparing for the space flight.

 

On the 12th of October, 1964 the Voskhod spacecraft was launched with three cosmonauts aboard, including B. B Yegorov. The flight lasted for 24 hours 17 minutes. It was the first time when a spacecraft carried more than one astronaut, and the first one in which cosmonauts flew without space suits.

 

The testing of the new spacecraft coincided with many dangers: the feat of the heroes causes even greater admiration considering that they fully comprehended the risks they faced. It is important to state that inside the craft there was five times less space for each cosmonaut than U. A. Gagarin had had.

B. B Yegorov claimed the 12th of October – the happiest day of his life. He was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union, and also a noble status – “Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR”.

During the flight the physician managed to gather a lot of valuable information. Here is just a small share of what the scientist noticed during the 24 hours: the condition of nervous system and workability of each participant of the flight on different stages of the space flight, the impact of the flight factors on heart-vascular system and blood system, external breathing, exchange of blood gases, energy inputs, control of life support systems.

Fortunately Yegorov didn’t have to treat the participants of the flight – they all felt good.

Later on B. B Yegorov handled scientific research in molecular biology and biotechnology fields, managed large space projects, such as world’s first long-lasting biosatellite “Cosmos-110”, creation of orbital stations “Salut”, realization of the first Soviet-American space flight “Souz Apolon”, which needed serious medical training. The accumulated experience both in science and in management appeared in high demand when the Center for managing medical care of Space Objects was created. B. B Yegorov headed it 1975–1979.

Due to Yegorov’s initiative in 1984 Biomedical Technological Research Institute was created. The energy of the scientist who actively implemented scientific ideas into life appeared in many programs and conferences devoted to molecular biology and biotechnology.

 

Scientific achievements. In 1967 B. B Yegorov defended his Candidate thesis “Some peculiarities of vestibular nuclei afferent neurons connections”, Doctoral thesis “Theoretic foundation and the system of managing human condition in the zero gravity state” (1979) was devoted to the basic functional changes and peculiarities of tissue cell regulation of the whole body under the circumstances of a space flight.

B. B Yegorov made major contributions in the development of Russian space medicine and biology, having become a world-renowned specialist in the field of molecular biology and cell physiology. His concept on vestibular apparatus sensor elements disbalance in the zero-gravity state – the cause for vestibular system disorders, became the basis for the development of remedies and resistance methods to motion sickness syndrome during space flights.

The scientist may be called the forerunner of absolutely new branch of biotechnology – biosynthesis physiologically active joints using cultivated human and animal cells.

His other investigations may be of great interest as well, for instance his research was aimed at creating superproductions of physiologically active substances on the basis of a part of natural genome amplification and also using genetic engineering methods, a concept suggested by Yegorov on specific regenerative proteins. B. B. Yegorov is the author of more than 120 scientific works, had 18 Inventor’s certificates.

 

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