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WORD’S FIRST HEART-LUNG MACHINE «AUTOJECTOR» OF S. S. BRUKCHONENKO AND S. I. CHECHULIN

WORD’S FIRST HEART-LUNG MACHINE «AUTOJECTOR» OF S. S. BRUKCHONENKO AND S. I. CHECHULIN

WORD’S FIRST HEART-LUNG MACHINE

«AUTOJECTOR» OF S. S. BRUKCHONENKO AND S. I. CHECHULIN

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Date of construction. 1926.

Authors. Sergei S. Brukhonenko (1890 – 1960) – physician, physiologist, Doctor of Medicine, Professor. Sergei I. Chechulin (1894 – 1937) – pathophysiologist, Doctor of Medicine, Professor.

Aims. Maintenance of artificial blood circulation with a stopped heart. An opportunity of reanimation by an artificial cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Tasks. Search of ways of reanimation by an artificial cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Methods and principles of work. S.S.Brukhonenko and S.I.Chechulin suggested a separate perfusion of arterial and venous systems. To supply fluidity of the blood the authors used anticoagulant. The autoejector consisted of a glass container filled with blood and anticoagulant. With the help of diaphragm pumps blood was aspirated from isolated head of a dog and pumped into the pulmonary artery of isolated lungs of the dog. Lungs were automatically ventilated and acted as oxygenator. After that, the blood returned to the container and then entered large blood vessels of the head, providing perfusion to cerebrum. The structure of the autoejector provided automatic regulation of pumping and aspiration of blood, as well as its warming. This method of perfusion let the authors supply complete artificial circulation for dogs with a speed – 2.5 liters per min. and pressure in arteries – up to 300 mm HG.

Stages of work. The autoejector was first demonstrated in 1925, at the second all-Russian pathology congress and in 1926 at all-Union congress of physiologists. Further work was aimed at using the heart-lung machine for the reanimation of a dead organism. Autoejector was patented in the USSR (№ 35976, 30.04.1934, with priority from 29.09.1928), in Germany (№139825, 1929), in England (№ 30708/28, 1929), in France (№ 662878, 1930).

Publication. Brukhonenko S.S. “Apparatus for artificial circulation (for warm-blooded). Search for new methods of artificial blood circulation and transfusion.” Moscow, 1928.

Value. S.S.Brukhonenko and S.I.Chechulin have singled out stages in the process of dying.

Creating of the autoejector paved the way to new spheres of practical medicine, particularly, reanimation, cardio surgery and transplantology.

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