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AT THE ORIGIN OF REANIMATOLOGY AND TRANSPLANTOLOGY

AT THE ORIGIN OF REANIMATOLOGY AND TRANSPLANTOLOGY

AT THE ORIGIN OF REANIMATOLOGY AND TRANSPLANTOLOGY

Sergei S. Brukhonenko (1890 – 1960) – physician, physiologist, pathophysiologist, Doctor of medicine, laureate of Lenin award (posthumously).

In our University. Graduated in 1914.

Brief biography. S. S. Brukhonenko was born in Kozlov (now Michurinsk), Voronezh region. When a teenager, Sergei had already demonstrated his constructing skills – designed and built a bicycle for himself.

After graduating, he was drafted into the army. There is some evidence that Brukhonenko was awarded the cross of St. George.

In autumn of 1917 he returned to work in Moscow. In 1919 he became an assistant of a professor at the Clinic of Special Pathology and Therapy of Second MSU.

His peers called him a man of absolute bravery and great mind. Together with S.I. Chechulin Brukhonenko invented and constructed an apparatus for lasting perfusion of an isolated head of a dog – famous autoejector.

After his successful experiments with dogs Brukhonenko tried reestablishing cardiac activity in dead patients. Often Brukhonenko managed to start the heart but, after the heart-lung machine was taken away, heart beat not longer than 15 minutes.

In 1920-es the scientist headed the chemico- therapeutic laboratory of the Chemico-pharmaceutical research Institute, then headed the laboratory of experimental therapy of the Central institute for Hematology and Blood Transfusion. In 1935 he founded and headed the Research Institute of Experimental Physiology and Therapy. When the WWII broke out Russian scientists were instructed to solve problems, such as blood conservation, so it could be stored for a long time which was very important then.

After the war Brukhonenko worked at the Sklifosovsky Istitute in Moscow, headed the laboratory in the Institute of Experimental Surgical Devises and Instruments in Moscow. During his last years the scientist headed the laboratory of artificial blood circulation in the Institute of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.

Scientific achievements. In 1926 together with S. I. Chechulin Brukhonenko invented and constructed a heart-lung machine (autojector).

Among other inventions of the scientist: an apparatus for watching electromagnetic and other types of radiation, automatic telephone switchboard, non-drying drawing pen, the way of making unbreakable thermometer, ets.

His most significant invention Brukhonenko considered “a method and machine for spatial drawing (stereography and stereograph)”, the principle part was a stereopen, which could make stereoscopic drawings.

This invention was patented in Germany, France, England, USA. Later on some of the principles were used in creating Soviet stereo cinema.

At the Museum of medical history. In the exposition there presented a photo of S. S. Brukhonenko as an army doctor during the WWI (1915). His observations there – major vessels, heart injuries, traumatic shock – made him think about finding a way to bypass during surgeries.

The Museum preserves a book “Works of the third All-Union congress of Physiologists. May, 28 – June, 2, Moscow”. There are three abstracts of the reports made by S. S. Brukhonenko (individually and in collaboration).

 


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