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THE FOUNDING FATHER OF THE FIRST UNIVERSITY CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LABORATORY IN THE USSR.

THE FOUNDING FATHER OF THE FIRST UNIVERSITY CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LABORATORY IN THE USSR.

THE FOUNDING FATHER OF THE FIRST UNIVERSITY CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH LABORATORY IN THE USSR.

Sergei I. Chechulin (1894 – 1937) – physiologist, pathophysiologist, Doctor of medicine.

In our University. Graduated in 1971. Headed the Chair of Pathophysiology of Sanitary-Hygiene Department.

Brief biograthy. Sergei Chechulin was born in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk). Having graduated, he stayed at the University and worked at the Chair of Systemic Anatomy. For two years since 1919 he headed the Chair of General Pathology of Moscow High school of medicine. It was an institution of higher education founded by the Soviet government due to lack of medical staff in the country.

In 1921-1922 S.I. Chechulin received a brilliant training concerning methodological and experimental work in I. P. Pavlov’s (Nobel prize winner) and N. P. Kravkov’s (the founding father of Soviet pharmacology) laboratories.

When he was still a very young scientist, S. I. Chechulin had already fully demonstrated his organisation skills. In 1920-es he organized a vivarium for lab animals, took part in producing digestive juice for medical purposes.

His idea of creating a scientific laboratory for the whole First Medical Institute was completely innovative. He wrote:

“This laboratory should fill the existing gap between theory and practice”.

In 1933 the laboratory was opened. The Central Scientific Research Laboratory was a facility of a new kind. It became a base where employees from different chairs and departments, mostly clinical, could do their experimental scientific work.

It wouldn’t be an overstatement to say that the head of the Laboratory was its soul. Together with his coworkers he managed to prove to the authorities the necessity and long-term perspective of the Laboratory. Its status of Central laboratory for all clinical chairs was enhanced by the fact that such famous professors as: M. P. Konchlovsky, N. N. Burdenko, E. M. Tareev and others worked there. It is important that the successful experience with creating CSRL in our Institute led to organization of other laboratories of such kind during the after war years, in other Medical Institutes of not only the USSR but in other countries as well – in Bulgaria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania.

In 1922 I. P. Pavlov wrote about S. I. Chechulin:

“I must admit that he is of a truly scientific type, and for the benefit of russian science I wish him the position and circumstances which would let him fully implement all his qualities.”

It is safe to say that in the short period of his work Chechulin has totally justified the words of his teacher.

Scientific achievements. Chechulin’s scientific research was devoted to physiology of digestion, blood circulation and central nervous system.

He gave an explanation of the nature of hypnotic sleep.

In 1926 S. I. Chechulin together with S. S. Brukhonenko created a heart-lung machine (“autojector”).

His major scientific discovery is the proof that mechanical stimulation of gastric mucosa is the physiological factor of gastric secretion. This discovery was the result of many years of research, for which Chechulin received the degree of Doctor of Medicine without a thesis.

The works on lipase activity under different kinds of diet allowed to explain one of organism’s adaptation mechanisms to food it receives.

The perpetuation of the memory. The Central Scientific Research Laboratory of our University bears the name of S. I. Chechulin.

In 1933 the Laboratory of extreme conditions was founded. It was named after S. I. Chechulin.

At the Museum of medical history. The Museum preserves articles, photographs, notebooks, personal belongings and documents of Sergei I. Chechulin, books from his home library. Chechulin’s lab diaries and notes are of special interest, amoung those are the notes describing the work at I. P. Pavlov’s laboratory.

An offprint of S. I. Chechulin’s article “The problem of revival of cerebrum” is kept in the funds. The article is devoted to the experiments S. I. Chechulin and S. S. Brukhonenko performed on an isolated head of a dog, which were demonstrated at the third all-Union congress of physiologists (Moscow. May of 1928).

On the display there presented a portrait of S. I. Chechulin (unknown artist, 1930-es).

 

History Lab


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