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SURGEON – PIONEER OF GASTRIC SURGERY

SURGEON – PIONEER OF GASTRIC SURGERY

SURGEON – PIONEER OF GASTRIC SURGERY

Vasily A. Basov (1812–1879) surgeon, physiologist, Doctor of medicine, Professor of Emperor Moscow University, Medical Department.

In our University. Graduated in 1833. Headed the chair of theoretic surgery with opthalmiatria and the chair of faculty surgery, director of faculty surgical clinic, head of a clinic of urinary and genital diseases.

Training. In 1843–1846-es Basov was sent abroad at the expense of the government following a proposal of the rector. He was to perfect his medical skills, particularly surgical. He visited Germany, Italy, France, England. For instance in Berlin he had a chance to become familiar with work of a famous surgeon J. F. Dieffenbach, in Paris – with work of A. Velpeau – a French anatomist and surgeon.

Brief biograthy. Vasily Basov was born in Oryol, and went to Oryol gymnasium. The young man earned his living by giving private lessons, but he managed to fulfill his dream and receive a higher medical education. After graduating he worked as a prosector in the University, studying systemic and pathological anatomy for eight years. Simultaneously he taught physiology in Moscow Medical and Surgical Academy and practiced as a surgeon.

V. A. Basov worked as a surgeon in the First Gradskaya and Eye hospitals. It is a well-known fact that the first few years he worked in the hospitals pro bono.

After becoming a professor of our University in 1848, Basov paid special attention to the educatory process. His surgical lectures were accompanied by demonstration of experiments, he provided training in topographical anatomy and operative surgery.

New methods of Professor Basov gave his students great practical experience. Among his student was future famous surgeon N. V. Sklifosovsky.

In 1859, having replaced Professor F. I. Inosemtsev who had retired, V. A. Basov became the head of the faculty surgical clinic. That was a proof of the high evaluation his colleagues gave to his scientific and practical work.

Scientific achievements. In 1841 V. A. Basov defended his doctoral dissertation «De lithiasi vesicae urinariae in genere et in specie; de extractione calculi per sectionem perinei», which became well-known in Europe.

He became the founding-father of so-called “projecting” or surface anatomy, which allows to decide upon internal condition of the body examining external features (bone protrusions, the contours of the muscles, tendons, ets.)

V. A. Basov has worked out and successfully performed the first in the world gastrostomy - the imposition of an artificial gastric fistula - in 1842.

This surgery has paved the way to a new epoch of gastric surgery and laid the foundation of modern physiology of digestion. Later the technique of imposition of fistula was improved by I. P. Pavlov. He used in his experiments studying the digestion, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prise.

V. A. Basov had an amazing surgical technique. He performed successful cornea transplant on rabbits, applied immobilization of upper extremities in cases of the olecranon fracture with the help of an appliance using alabaster, developed maxillofacial and plastic surgery, performed the first in Russia tracheotomy.

The perpetuation of the memory in our Museum. In 1892 a well-known artist V. K. Stember painted a portrait of V. A. Basov for the chair of faculty surgery. The portrait is now presented in the gallery hall of fame and glory of our Museum.

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